ABM 2 – Additional Bio-markers: for GI Gut Pathogens

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  • Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of bacterial-induced diarrhea. Infection is primarily associated with the ingestion of contaminated and poorly cooked foods of animal origin, notably, red meat and milk.
  • Clostridium difficile isan anaerobic, spore-forming gram-positive bacterium. Antibiotics often create a disturbance of the gut flora leading to colonization with Clostridium difficile can take place. Clostridium difficile infection is much more common than once thought
  • Escherichia coli is a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a group of bacterial strains that have been identified as worldwide causes of serious human gastrointestinal disease. The subgroup enterohemorrhagic E. coli includes over 100 different serotypes, with 0157:H7 being the most significant, as it occurs in over 80% of all cases. Contaminated food continues to be the principal vehicle for transmission; foods associated with outbreaks include alfalfa sprouts, fresh produce, beef, and unpasteurized juices.
  • Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) is a bacterium which causes peptic ulcer disease and plays a role in the development of gastric cancer. Direct stool testing of the antigen (HpSA) is highly accurate and is appropriate for diagnosis and follow-up of infection